A typical negotiation (whether formal or informal) consists of five distinct stages which are: 1. Preparation, 2. Discussion, 3. Clarification of goals, 4. Exchange of deal proposals, 5. Agreement or not. Some scientists and analysts believe that the steps are six (they consider the sixth step in coming up with specific practices to implement the agreement), others are concentrating the steps in four (they consider step 3 to be part of step 4). The essence, however, is ultimately the same.